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Gerwani Menentang Poligami tapi Diam saat Soekarno Nikah Lagi

[MILENIALA.CLUB] Isu kesetaraan gender dan poligami merupakan permasalahan yang diperjuangkan organisasi-organisasi perempuan di Indonesia, termasuk Gerakan Wanita Indonesia (Gerwani). Muhadjir Darwin dalam Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Volume 7, Nomor 3, Maret 2004 (283-294) menyebutkan isu poligami muncul ketika Sukarno yang merupakan simbol bapak bangsa dan telah beristri Fatmawati menikahi Hartini.

Perbuatan Sukarno ketika itu mendapat penentangan dari organisasi perempuan yaitu Persatuan Wanita Indonesia (Perwani). Dalam Jurnal berjudul Gerakan Perempuan di Indonesia dari Masa ke Masa itu, menurut Muhadjir .

Gerwani yang merupakan sebuah organisasi massa dan berafiliasi kepada Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) tidak menunjukkan pembelaannya terhadap perempuan dalam masalah poligami atau dalam memperjuangkan lahirnya undang-undang perkawinan karena kedekatan politik Gerwani/PKI dengan Sukarno.

“Mungkin Presiden RI pertama tersebut dianggap sebagai sekutu strategis bagi perjuangan komunis di Indonesia ketika itu untuk menghadapi politisi Islam yang anti- komunis. Perlu juga dicatat bahwa Sukarno pada awalnya sangat mendukung kaum perempuan,” kata Muhadjir dalam tulisannya.

Dari Laporan Pemantauan HAM Perempuan, Komisi Nasional Perempuan yang berjudul "Kejahatan Kemanusiaan Berbasis Gender: Mendengarkan Suara Perempuan Korban Peristiwa 1965" menyebutkan hubungan Gerwani retak dengan anggota federasi organisasi-organisasi perempuan di tingkat nasional, yaitu Kongres Wanita Indonesia (Kowani) dan juga dengan Gabungan Organisasi Wanita (GOW) di tingkat daerah lain yang berlatar belakang politik untuk mereformasi undang-undang perkawinan yang mensahkan poligami.

“Hubungan Gerwani dengan organisasi-organisasi perempuan lain, terutama di tingkat pusat, tampaknya memiliki masalah sejak Gerwani memutuskan untuk tidak mengecam pernikahan Sukarno dengan Hartini pada tahun 1954 walaupun sebelumnya Gerwani mengambil posisi yang tegas menentang poligami,” sebut Laporan yang dicetak pada 2007 dengan tim penulis Ita F. Nadia dan kawan-kawan tersebut.

Sementara itu, sejarawan I Gusti Agung Ayu Ratih mengatakan keengganan Gerwani untuk mengkritik Sukarno antara lain karena tekanan dari pihak organisasi-organisasi kiri lainnya, terutama PKI, untuk tidak memperlemah pemerintahan Sukarno.

Pilihan organisasi-organisasi kiri pada saat itu adalah sepenuhnya mendukung Sukarno dalam membangun Front Nasional untuk menghadapi kekuatan Neo-Kolonialisme dan Imperialisme (Nekolim) dalam rangka Konfrontasi dengan Malaysia dan Pembebasan Irian Barat (sekarang Papua Barat).

“Pilihan Gerwani membuat organisasi-organisasi perempuan lainnya, terutama Persatuan Wanita RI (Perwari), kecewa dan jengkel terhadap aktivis-aktivis Gerwani karena mereka sebenarnya berharap kekuatan massa Gerwani akan dapat menekan Sukarno untuk tidak melanjutkan praktik poligaminya,” ujar Ayu Ratih yang sedang menyelesaikan S3 bidang Sejarah di University of British Columbia kepada detikcom, awal pekan lalu, melalui surat elektronik.

Sri Sulistyawati, seorang aktivis Gerwani mengatakan saat itu Gerwani juga mengkritik rencana Bung Karno nikah lagi. Namun, menurut dia keputusan Bung Karno menikahi Hartini adalah masalah pribadi. “Itu tanggung jawab pribadi,” kata Sri kepada detikcom, Sabtu (14/9) di Kramat VII, Jakarta Pusat.

Apalagi, dia menegaskaan, saat itu Bung Karno berjuang keras untuk mengajak kaum perempuan terlibat aktif dalam perjuangan melawan neo-kolonialisme dan imperialisme.(Sumber: detik)

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